Support

Support Options

Report a problem

About you
About the problem

fchslashspring2019 project 7

Project by group fchslashspring2019

Info

Explore Plants are a very big part of our existence as we know it. Plants provide us with food, oxygen, and something pretty to look at. We have discovered in class that there are many different plants in the world. They are all different, but yet the same in so many ways. Questions: ~What plants are...
Research Question What is the different amounts of pollen in the atmosphere?
Predictions If we put our pollen traps up higher, then we will collect more pollen.
Experimental Design Our independent variable would be how high we put our traps. The dependent variable would be how much pollen we collect. Our general procedure for our data collection would be 3 different traps. We will set the pollen traps in our football stadium during our second block class. One pollen trap...
Conclusion What claim can we make from our experiment? What are possible explanations for our results? How do the data we collected and our reasoning with scientific ideas support our claim? What future experiments could be done to expand on the results of this experiment?

Updates

Get to know your team’s scientist mentor, who will encourage and guide you through the scientific process of discovery. The more you share your ideas and research info, the more your mentor can help. You may also hear from a scientist mentor liaison who will be helping all the teams in your class.
PlantingScience Staff
has been updated by administrator
PlantingScience Staff
said
Looks like you are in the final stages of your projects.
It’s great to see that teams from your school are wrapping up and posting conclusions. Enjoy the final stages of your project, and feel free to post any final comments or questions you have for your mentors.
Rebecca
said

Thank you so much for working with our group these past weeks. I have learned so much just by interacting with you. You seriously inspired me to take a horticulture degree as my minor in college. I hope that you have great rest of your day!

Rebecca
said

These pictures are diagrams that we had drawn and labeled for both the Violet and the Dandelion.

    Sarah Shannon-Firestone
    said

    Good diagrams.  I like your illustration of the ovary.  Is your "pollen tube" label for the violet pointing to a pollen tube or to the style? 

    Rebecca
    said

    I believe it is pointing to the pollen tube.

    Sarah Shannon-Firestone
    said

    The part of the flower under the stigma is the style.  The pollen tubes grow through the style and into the ovary.

    Rebecca
    said

    No, I didn't know that wild ginger in the US is pollinated by ants. We didn't end up finding any information on the type of insects that pollinates violets and dandelions.

Rebecca
said

The question that we are asking is do flowers of a certain color receive more insect visitors than others? Our hypothesis is if we observe a purple violet and a yellow dandelion flower, then the purple violet will have more insect visitors, due to the color difference. The materials we need for this part of the project is very simple, we just need a stopwatch to make sure that we look at all the flowers for the same amount of time. We will also need paper and a pencil to take tallies of how many insects visit each flower within the 10 minutes. Our independent variable is the type/color of the flowers that we will observe. The dependent variable will be the amount of insect visitors that visit each type/color of flowers.

    Sarah Shannon-Firestone
    said

    Excellent project description, and your ID of the independent/dependent variables is right on the mark.  Do you have a hypothesis?  What else may affect how many insects visit the flowers?  Weather conditions?  Time of day?  Distance from a hive?

    Rebecca
    said

    Thank you! Yes, we do have a hypothesis. Our hypothesis: If we look at both a purple violet and a dandelion together, then the violet will get more insect visitors because of its color. I'm pretty sure that there is many things that could affect how many  insects visit the flowers. We did our experiment yesterday and We noticed that the weather, time of day, and even I feel like the noise ended up affecting it.

    Sarah Shannon-Firestone
    said

    Did you know that wild ginger in the US (not the type of ginger you eat) is pollinated by ants?  Also, pawpaws are pollinated by flies.  Did you find any information on the type of insect that pollinates violets and dandelions?

Rebecca
said

Picture number one is the sheet that we collected all of our data on. The second one is our labeled and titled data table. The third one is a picture of the dandelion violet that we looked at for the 10 minutes under the microscope. The fourth is the violet under the microscope. The fifth and sixth are both of the flowers in their natural habitat. Thank you for working with us on this project, I've learned new things that I never would have thought about while doing this project.

    Sarah Shannon-Firestone
    said

    Good job guys.  Science can sometimes be really frustrating.  As Thomas Edison said, "I have not failed.  I have just found 1,000 ways that do not work."  You've learned a lot, and you'll get better each time you do a new experiment.

Rebecca
uploaded 20190412_105634.jpg and 5 more files in project files
    Sarah Shannon-Firestone
    said

    Great graph!

    Did you know that a dandelion flow is actually a big cluster of tiny flowers?  Each flower has one yellow petal.

Rebecca
said

Our conclusion: Purple violets do have more insect visitors than yellow Dandelions.

Rebecca
said

Yesterday, we went outside and looked at whether violets or dandelions had more insect visitors. We began to notice, that there wasn't very many insect visitors on either of them at all. We looked at both the violet and the dandelion for 10 minutes to get all of our data. I figured that splitting those 10 minutes into 2 sets of 5 minutes would make it easier on all of us. MaKayla was the time keeper and Josh and I were looking at the flowers and collecting our data. 

~Blue Violet (purple)

    *The first 5 minutes: We only saw one fly land on it for just a tiny millisecond. Josh and I began to realize that the flies and beetles would either be flying or crawling around them, but not necessarily be landing on them that often. Even if they landed on them it was almost like they saw us or something and would fly/crawl away before we could get a picture of them. I guess in a way, maybe they were shy.

    *The second 5 minutes: We on saw one fly, yet again it flew away before we got a chance to snap a picture of it.

~Dandelion (Yellow)

    The first 5 minutes: We saw zero insects land on them, flies were flying around them , but wouldn't land on them.

    The second 5 minutes: The same as the first 5 minutes.

ERRORS: The time keeper didn't tell us when they started the timer over every 5 minutes. We also didn't know how many minutes we were already in to until after they were over. The grass had just been mowed right before we went outside. In which resulted in it becoming hard to find actual violets that were in tact to look at. The dandelions however, were definitely in tact more than the violets. The dandelions were in a secluded little flower bed in the middle of our schools parking lot. The weather yesterday was very gloomy, with lots of cloud coverage, and for some odd reason it was kind of chilly outside too. Lastly, I'm not sure if this has anything to do with how many insect visitors we had, but it was very loud outside too. The lawn mowers were roaring and there was also quite a lot of chattering between classes. I also wasn't aware that we needed to take a picture of our sampling sites until now, but I did get pictures of the plants in the ground and under the microscope!

Rebecca
said

Alrighty so after we got collected all of our pollen slides, we were left with 5 slides. The first picture is slide A, the second is slide B, third is slide C, fourth is slide D, and the fifth picture is slide E. Like I said they were all labeled bleachers and we figured that labeling them with letters would make it easier!

    Rebecca
    said

    I think that if I had lots of money and could do this project again, I would definitely put our pollen traps in a much more secluded place, where people wouldn't be able to take them. I would also label our slides a little better, I hadn't realized that we labeled then all to go into our stadium's bleachers, until after the fact. I would take pictures of where we put each trap as well. It took a little bit longer for us to find our traps because we didn't think to take pictures until yet again, after the fact. I honestly think that if we would have had more time or would have been able to keep our traps outside for longer, then we probably would have had a lot more pollen and a lot less debris than what we had.

    Rebecca
    said

    That's so funny! Thank goodness they didn't mess with too much of y'alls data! I think that if you were to have put that "Removing invasive honeysuckle appeared to result in increased zombie activity," it would have added some comedic tones to your data for sure.

Rebecca
said

We came to the conclusion that there is more pollen higher up in the atmosphere, than lower in the atmosphere. On April 1, we set our pollen traps up on our football stadium. We had 3 replicates of pollen traps. On April 2, we collected our pollen traps and stained them with Calberla's Solution and found that there was more debris than pollen on April, 3. We noticed that there was a lot more debris on our pollen traps than pollen. I definitely think that there is a better way to collect pollen. From where we put them on our football stadium, we ended up losing 2 of our traps. We are thinking that someone took them because on April 1, our school had a soccer game. We also unfortunately still had other errors. When we went to set our pollen traps, it was so cold that we just put them wherever we could put them as fast as we could. We also put on our slides that they were all going on the bleachers, but after we had already set them, I had realized we put some in other places than the bleachers. There was like 3 out of 7 of them that weren't on our bleachers and the rest were. We still got quite a lot of interesting data even after our errors.

    Sarah Shannon-Firestone
    said

    It's so annoying when bystanders mess up your data collection.  One time, my research team got to our field site in the forest, which we had been monitoring for months, and we saw a bunch of holes someone had dug all over the field site.  Why all these holes?  And why was there red paint on the trees?  Then we found a discarded bottle of commercial "Zombie Blood."  Apparently, a bunch of high schoolers were making a horror film and just happened to pick our field site for the scene where all the zombies rise from the dead!  Our professor wouldn't allow us to put that in the peer-reviewed paper we wrote for the project.  Oh well.

    If you had lots of money and could do this project again, what would you do differently?

    Rebecca
    said

    You are right, it is very annoying when people mess with your data collection. Oh my goodness! I think that if I were in your shoes and people had messed up my field site research, I would have gotten very mad! Did y'all have to pay for all the stuff they tampered with or did they? I hope they did, considering they realized they wanted become a movie director out of no where. Also, why do you think your professor didn't allow you to put it in your peer-reviewed paper? 

    Sarah Shannon-Firestone
    said

    The students probably didn't realize that they were in a research site.  Our plots were in a forest and only marked by railroad stakes hammered into the ground.  They didn't damage any property, just the seedlings we'd been monitoring for months, and there was no way to figure out exactly which students were responsible for digging the holes.  We got enough data to publish a paper.  Jonathan and I wanted to write that removing invasive honeysuckle appeared to result in increased zombie activity, but our professor made us change it to "increased pedestrian traffic."

Rebecca
uploaded 20190405_104649.jpg and 2 more files in project files
    Sarah Shannon-Firestone
    said

    Well done!  For your bar graph, remember that your independent variable (height) goes on the x-axis and your dependent variable (amount of pollen) goes on the y-axis.

    Rebecca
    said

    I will remember that, thank you for the advice!

Rebecca
uploaded 20190409_114848.jpg, 20190409_114843.jpg in project files
Rebecca
said

We researched a Violet and a Dandelion today and a found out so much that I didn't know!

*Violets~ The common name that a Violet has is Blue violet. Its scientific name is Viola sororia. The Life Cycle of a Blue Violet is that it comes together in big clumps/colonies in forests, fields, and any area that humans are in. It grows mostly during the spring and summer time, and some even in the winter time. During the winter time, the stems grow underground. Blue Violets grow from year to year, depending on the soil's temperature. In forests, there is more light during the first few weeks of them coming out. Their leaves turn yellow and die in the fall due to cold weather, the amounts of rain, and the lack of rain. Fun Fact~ Fungus and herbivores can also kill violets off quickly.

*Dandelions~ The common name of a Dandelion is Dandelion. It's scientific name is Taxacum officinale. The Life Cycle of a Dandelion is that it can grow from sea level to high mountains, so basically anywhere humans live. They do well because it's leaves make it difficult for grazing animals to eat them, also Dandelions are below most lawnmower blades. For the most part, the come out in the spring and fall. Fun Facts~ Dandelions are in the sunflower family. Their seeds produce asexually, which makes since that they go dormant in the winter and their roots stay alive. That in itself makes it to where they can get a jumpstart on growing when it becomes warmer outside.

Rebecca
uploaded Screenshot_20190405-113008.png and 4 more files in project files
Rebecca
said

1st picture is our bar graph that shows our data, the 2nd picture is our conclusion paper, and the 3rd picture is where we collected all of our data

Sarah Shannon-Firestone
said

I agree that rain and dew will probably affect all the treatments equally.  How about sunlight and wind?  Will there be more wind or stronger wind higher up?

Have you made a hypothesis graph?

    Rebecca
    said

    I'd say that sunlight and wind could totally affect the treatments equally. If you think about it, it is almost like the higher up you travel, the more wind there is. Also, no we haven't made a hypothesis graph yet, we are working on it right now as I speak!

Rebecca
said

I sure can, we were thinking about 2 replicates maybe? Do you think we need to do more than 2 replicates or does 2 sound like it's enough?

    Sarah Shannon-Firestone
    said

    In science we generally use at least three replicates.  For my big germination experiment, I had ten replicates per treatment, but that meant I had 360 petri dishes!  Often, you can't use that many replicates because you don't have enough supplies, money, or time.

    Rebecca
    said

    We made three replicates and just placed them in our stadium and we will probably measure the number of stairs as well as how far off the ground they are. Rain and dew could definitely affect the amount of pollen that reaches the slides. Yes, I believe that rain and dew will affect all of our treatments the same.

Rebecca
said

Our experimental design:

Our independent variable would be how high we put our traps. The dependent variable would be how much pollen we collect. Our general procedure for our data collection would be 3 different traps. We will set the pollen traps in our football stadium during our second block class. One pollen trap will be sat at the lowest, highest, and middle point. We will count the pollen grains by putting our findings under the microscope and count. In order to count each pollen grain, we will look at it at 100x magnification.

    Sarah Shannon-Firestone
    said

    Good design!  Are you going to measure how high off the ground they are in feet, or are you going to use a different measurement (like number of stairs)?

    Other than height off the ground, what variables could affect the amount of pollen that reaches the slides?  Will these variables be the same for all three treatments?

Sarah Shannon-Firestone
said

We meant to ask is there more or less pollen higher up in our atmosphere?

Let's divide up this question into higher elevations (like mountaintops or the Tibetan Plateau) and higher altitudes (really far off the ground).  You're right that for both of these, there is less oxygen and it is colder and drier the higher you go.  At high elevations, trees can't grow and you mainly get grasses.  This means that, if you were to set out pollen traps at different elevations, the types of pollen in your traps would be different and the amount of pollen would also be different.

How do you think the amount of pollen and types of pollen would change if you sample at different heights off the ground?  Why?

    Rebecca
    said

    The amount of pollen and types of pollen would change if we sample at different heights off the ground because we are thinking that plants are closer to the ground, so there for, there would be more pollen closer to the ground.

    Sarah Shannon-Firestone
    said

    Good hypothesis!  Can you draw what you think your results will look like in a bar graph? 

    To make a bar graph, put the independent variable on the x-axis (trap height off ground) and the dependent variable on the y-axis (number of pollen grains).  For a hypothesis bar graph, the y-axis doesn't need to have numbers on it.  The main point of this graph is to show the pattern you expect to see in your results.  Doing a hypothesis bar graph makes it easier to see whether your results support your hypothesis.  You just compare the two graphs.

Sarah Shannon-Firestone
said

If the corn's pollen is heavy, then how did it get 80 meters above the ground?

Corn pollen is heavy for pollen; it's still very small and very light.  It likely traveled that far up in altitude due to wind currents.

How is corn ever pollinated?

Technically, corn is considered wind-pollinated.  However, unlike some wind-borne pollen that travels very far, corn pollen just drops.  The tassels at the top of the corn stalk are the male flowers, and the baby corn cobs are clusters of female flowers.  The corn silk is the style of the female flower.  Given what you know about corn silk, how long would you expect the pollen tubes to grow?

    Rebecca
    said

    I'd expect that the pollen tubes would grow a couple of weeks, maybe? I mean if you think about it, corn takes a while to grow in general, so there for, I would think that the pollen tubes would grow about a week or so or maybe even a month?

    Sarah Shannon-Firestone
    said

    Oops, clarification: How many inches long do you think the pollen tubes will grow?  Think about how long corn silk is.

Sarah Shannon-Firestone
said

Good experiment!  I'm not able to see all of your experimental design.  Can you post it in the updates?  How many replicates are you going to have for each treatment?

Rebecca
changed the project settings
Rebecca
updated the project info
Sarah Shannon-Firestone
said

"Do you think people that are higher up in the atmosphere become affected by pollen differently or no?"

Interesting question.  If a person collected pollen at sea level and then drove up to the top of a mountain and poured the pollen on their face, do you think they would react differently? 

How is the environment at higher altitudes different from sea level?

    Rebecca
    said

    Great point! Thank you for your feedback! We didn"t exactly know how to word our second question, sorry! We meant to ask is there more or less pollen higher up in our atmosphere?

    Rebecca
    said

    If the corn's pollen is heavy, then how did it get 80 meters above the ground? How is corn ever pollinated? Is it pollinated by wind or insects? That might be a silly question, but I have always wondered how corn is pollinated!

    Rebecca
    said

    I would say that the environment at higher altitudes is different from sea level because there is less oxygen, maybe? I remember in my Earth Science class, freshmen year, my teacher said something about how the higher you get, the less oxygen you have. That's the reason why when you fly in an airplane, you have oxygen on the plane. If there wasn't any oxygen, the people wouldn't survive their flights, let alone even be able to fly. Th temperature would be a factor at higher altitudes as well. The higher up a person goes, the colder it gets. Also, the lower amount of oxygen would more than likely affect different species of plants, wouldn't it?