Foundations of Genetics: Team Carrot

Project by group cmsmulcaheyspring2021

Info

Explore We know that plants need light and water to grow. Plants also require oxygen to survive, as most of the living things on Planet Earth need oxygen. We can infer that out plants only need their bottles filled up once every couple days to ensure the rope keeps moisturizing the soil. The water supply...
Research Question Will more fertilizer or rocks help or hurt the growth of the seeds?
Predictions I think more fertilizer will help the seed grow because when the landscaping company comes to my house they put down fertilizer to help the grass be healthier and grow so I think it will do the same for our seeds.
Experimental Design Our plan is to change the circumstances with our seedling growth. We can do this by changing amount of fertalizer from the control amount to a different variable, and test our hypothesis. We can also change to amount of rock layer on our plant from the control to a new varible, and see how it...
Conclusion 1. A claim we can make from our experiments is that there are advantages for a plant to have certain traits because it can help them blend in for use of camouflage and help make themselves more scary. Another advantage it could help protect itself from certain climates. Another claim we can make...

Updates

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Erich Huebner
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Erich Huebner
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Erich Huebner
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PlantingScience Staff
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PlantingScience Staff
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PlantingScience Staff
said
Hello everyone!

It looks like the problem is resolved and everything should be back to normal. Please feel free to resume posting, and do let us know if you experience any issues posting to your projects.
Andrew Schnabel
said

Hello Team Carrot -

It looks like you've uploaded your final postings about the project, and you all seem to have reached different conclusions, even though you were looking at exactly the same plants and the same data.  There is a lot to digest in what you've written, so let me comment on a just a couple of things.

1) What claim can we make from our experiment?

I've looked at your data files and your graphs, and it seems to me that you have no differences among treatments.  There is a lot of variation among plants, but no consistent difference in growth among the three treatments.  This means that whatever variable you were manipulating had no effect on growth.  I'm still not completely clear about what your independent variable was (something do to with rocks and water?), but whatever you manipulated, it didn't change the way the plants grew.  This seems to be the only claim you could make from your experiment.

2) What are possible explanations for our results?

This is where things get tricky.  Your data are very messy - lots of variation from plant to plant.  Based on your remarks and photos, some of your plants had unexpected growth patterns.  As a group, you don't seem to agree about the explanations for all this variation, especially with respect to the relative importance of genes vs environment.  At least one person is attributing everything to genes, whereas others are emphasizing environmental variation.  Since I don't know the full details of your experiment, I won't try to resolve these differences, but I can suggest a couple of things to think about. 

First, your class experiment into testing for a 9:3:3:1 ratio suggests to me that you did not use genetically uniform seeds.  You were expecting to see genetic variation with respect to the traits you measured for the 9:3:3:1 ratio.  Thus, there was probably also genetic variation for the quantitative traits you measured in your own experiment.  Different plants had different genotypes.  This means that you can't attribute all the variation you see only to the environment.

Second, I read at least one remark about possible environmental variation in your experiment, beyond the planned variation based on manipulation of the independent variable.  I would be surprised if you managed to keep all other environmental variables completely uniform across treatments.  That's very difficult to do, even by professional botanists.  Thus, I think you can safely assume that the growth of your plants was also affected by environmental variation that was possibly beyond your control.  This means that you can't attribute all the variation you see only to genes.

The conclusion then is that a lot of the variation you saw was probably due to a combination of genetic differences among plants and environmental variation in the experimental set-up.  This may seem anticlimactic, but it is actually a very important conclusion.  The variation you see in nature, whether in plants, people, aardvarks, mushrooms or any other organism, will inevitably be explained by a combination of genetic variation and environmental variation.

I don't know where you are going from here on this project, but I suspect that you are wrapping things up and moving on to other things.  It's been a pleasure to work with you.  You should congratulate yourselves on completing such a complex project.  You wrestled with some difficult questions, and I was impressed with the depth of thinking that you were applying to those questions.

Your sincerely,

Andrew Schnabel

PlantingScience Staff
said

Hello everyone!

We are aware of some technical issues with the platform, leading to an issue with posting to project pages and issues with users' dashboards. We are working diligently with our developer to resolve them as quickly as possible. Please be patient and keep checking your projects so you can post your hellos, updates, reports, thank-yous, and goodbyes.

Brian Mulcahey
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Brian Mulcahey
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Alexander
said

4. Based off of… A. your group results, B. your class results, C. 9th grade CM Biology results, did we actually see this pattern of traits be expressed? Check the Mustard Seed Master Class Data sheet for this information and use it as evidence in your claims below.

Which level of the population (A, B, and/or C) showed the 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio? If your results varied from this ratio, please explain how that could occur with 3 claims. (15 points)

In the graph of Discrete Traits for our data, we did not see this exact ratio. First, this could be because of human error. Some people may have forgotten to write down the proper traits, or at all. Second, it could be because some of the plants died before the results were over, leaving the ratio off. And finally, it could be because some plants changed color as they grew. Drawing from personal experience and

6a. An organism exists as an expression of its inherited genes interacting in an environmental context (Phenotype = Genotype X Environment).

Yes, this statement is true. Both Genotypes and Environment influence Phenotypes. For example, for our plant Mustard seeds, the Genotype might have said it would be Straight and Wrinkled. But because of our environmental variable of not having rocks, instead of the plants being straight, they were twisted due to lack of rock support.

6b. Inheritance of genes occurs via the life cycle of an organism through successful reproduction of offspring.

Yes, this statement is true. During reproduction, the child gets one allele from each parent, which come together to form genes. Each allele is dominant and recessive, which effects the circumstances which the new Phenotype, or physical trait, takes form. We know this because it is evidenced in the child showing traits from both parents.

6e. Science is an active process of inquiry, investigation, and communication.

This statement is true. It is evidenced in the Scientific Method. The Scientific Method is a tool used by researchers and scientists to plan and conduct their work. It has 8 steps. First make an observation, then ask a question, research the question for existing answers, data, or solutions, propose a hypothesis on the question, then design and carry out your experiment, test the hypothesis to accept or reject it, make a conclusion and answer your question, and finally report your findings so other can build off it, try the experiment themselves, or answer their own questions. Almost all experiments revolve around these steps. In the Scientific Method, you are inquiring, investigating, and communicating.

Alexander
uploaded Bio Team Carrot Average Heights Graph.png in project files
Alexander
said

Alexander
said

1. What claim can we make from our experiment?

Yes, traits are effected by the environment. In our experiment, Bottle C had a variable of no rocks in its top layer of soil. Because of this, while the plants in Bottle C had roughly the same height as the other bottles, all of its plants were lopsided and did not grow straight, while the others with rocks did.

2. What are possible explanations for our results?

Some possible explanations could be genes. The phenotypic traits of our plants parents could have influenced our results. Envirnment also could have played a factor, with different envirnmental variables greatly influencing plant traits group to group.

3. How do the data we collected and our reasoning with scientific ideas support our claim?

The data we collected proves that envirnment changes phenotypic traits, because data varied from group to group. We know that they all had the same parents, so the only way they could have varied would be through the envirnment.

4. What future experiments could be done to expand on the results of this experiment?

We could take the plants that we grew and then breed them together, to further see if the new traits developed would carry onto the next plants in line.

    Alexander
    said

Aidan
said

1. A claim we can make from our experiments is that there are advantages for a plant to have certain traits because it can help them blend in for use of camouflage and help make themselves more scary. Another advantage could it could help protect itself from certain climates. Another claim we can make is traits are not affected by environment because it is all genetics for how the plants look.
2. Some possible explanations for our results could be the genes that their parents had and what the plants look like. To answer our essential question the way the plant looks is totally based off the genes it has. Another possible explanation for our results are the environments our plants were in were consistently changing temperature but they didn't change.

3. Our plants did well with more soil, because the soil soaks up for water, causing the plant to become hydrated without becoming drowned. The soil can also help the plant become more rooted in it, helping the plant have its roots expand and have more breathing room (literally). The soil can also help the plants stay firmly inside the bottle. 
4. We could test and see if the plants do better with fertilizer than soil. Maybe the fertilizer soaks up more soil, causing us to need less water to not kill the plant. If we change up the sand-particle, then we can test and see what works better for plants opposed to that which works worse.

PlantingScience Staff
said

Looks like you are in the final stages of your projects.

It’s great to see that teams from your school are wrapping up and posting conclusions. Enjoy the final stages of your project, and feel free to post any final comments or questions you have for your mentors.

You have until Tuesday, April 25, 2021, for final posts to be added, so please be sure to thank your fellow teammates soon!

Declan
said

Questions

1. Are traits affected by the environment?

Yes, phenotypic traits are the physical showing of your genotypes mixed with the enviroment. We all had the same seeds but we didn't all have the same results which means they were affected by the enviromment.

2. The possible explanations are that the variables we used have an effect on how the plants grow.

3. The data supports our claim because the data we all have different data which means environment had an affect on our plants.

4. If we did this same experiment but at a much larger scale we could expand our results.

Adam
uploaded Adam Plant Graph.jpg in project files
Adam
said

1. Plants differ in different environnments. If you have a plant outside it will have to work for it's resources to grow and probably have more competition compared to a plant in a pot sitting on your window sill. They are fed their own needs and probably are not as good at gathering and holding within of water because nothing will take it from them. When you are a plant it a dry climate that doesn't know when it will rain next.

2. Our possible explanations for our results if they are bad could be if we didn't give them the right amount of water or we maybe hit them over at the start that maybe effected the seeds and they were hit out of position to where they couldn't grow correctly because they were too close to another seed which stole all the water. Another reason could be what bottle it was like maybe 2x fertilizer and that was too much for the plans or in our third they didn't have any rocks and that effected it to not be able to stand correctly. It could have been good because it was succseful in their environment and they got what they needed.

3. Some plants were more succseful than others. We had our control which did very well but then our one with no rocks died off. It shows that it needs the rocks because of how our control was so succesful or even the 2x time was good. These environments showed if it could survive or not. 

4. Future experiments could be using something different than water or even a differnt plant. We could use all three of our bottles but instead of using a mustard seed we could use a sunflower and see what works and if it is different from mustard seeds. Then it would let us compare these plants and find the best environment for them to live in while also getting the right things to survive.

 

Adam
said

Which level of the population (A, B, and/or C) showed the 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio? If your results varied from this ratio, please explain how that could occur with 3 claims. (15 points) 

  1. In our Group we had a 7:0:7:0 ratio b. We had a 15:2: 45:4 C. 71:24:187:17. 

  1. In this data we did not get this ratio. This could have happened because of seeds were modified. They may have also been from the same plant so they would mostly have the same genetics in color. 

 An organism exists as an expression of its inherited genes interacting in an environmental context (Phenotype = Genotype X Environment).       In our plants we see that the environment can change our plants like fertilizer we have doubled, or we put no rocks in. The plant must change for the better and try to survive and adapt to survive. 

2. Inheritance of genes occurs via the life cycle of an organism through successful reproduction of offspring.   Over time when your body grows, and the life cycle occurs you will get genes from both sides of families and genes will be continued to be passed down each time. The successful reproduction 50%from mom and the other 50% from dad and that will keep going on and be passed down. 

50%from mom and the other 50% from dad and that will keep going on and be passed down. 

3. Plants are living, reproducing organisms that live in and are influenced by the environment.   They are infected by the environment because they will change to better themselves like growing closer to the light source. 

4. Plants vary in their phenotypes (traits), and we can observe, measure and analyze this variation by studying populations of plants.     They vary in their traits because we can see the population of them in our classroom and we can see how they vary on the control experiment by color or length and it is a part of tracking the plants. 

5.  Science is an active process of inquiry, investigation, and communication.    Every day we have recorded our data and mostly everyday it has changed whether it comes from height or color you must investigate and keep watching. 

 

 

Declan
uploaded bio picture.png in project files
    Declan
    said

    this is the graph for number 5

Declan
said

4. Based off of… A. your group results, B. your class results, C. 9th grade CM Biology results, did we actually see this pattern of traits be expressed? Check the Mustard Seed Master Class Data sheet for this information and use it as evidence in your claims below.

Which level of the population (A, B, and/or C) showed the 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio? If your results varied from this ratio, please explain how that could occur with 3 claims. (15 points)

 

My groups data and our classes data both do not show a 9:3:3:1 ratio. This could be because of having the C bottle with a unique variable to each group, having plants change their visible traits which would affect the ratio, and having plants die due to human error or other which would give us incomplete data so we couldn’t make a ratio.

5. Please choose ONE of the continuous traits you measured and create a graph. You may choose to graph the using data exclusively from your group dataset, your class data, or the entire CM Biology growth data. Any data we collected from the Mustard experiment will be available to you in a downloadable excel file. Bonus points below will be applied to a missing or low grade from Q3.

I graphed the amount of leaves for our whole class data.

My x-axis is the plant ID number

My y-axis is the amount of leaves

6. Please read Concept #1 and 2 other concepts from the list below. In claim-evidence-reasoning fashion, tell me why these concepts are true using the collected data from your mustard experiment, feedback from your mentors, and connections to genetics and evolution we have discussed together. (14 points)

Concepts:

  1. An organism exists as an expression of its inherited genes interacting in an environmental context (Phenotype = Genotype X Environment).

This is true because an organism receives genes from its parents in which the phenotype is determined by environment.

  1. Inheritance of genes occurs via the life cycle of an organism through successful reproduction of offspring.

This is true because when reproduction occurs an offspring inherits genes from both of its parents.

  1. Plants are living, reproducing organisms that live in and are influenced by the environment.

 I know this to be true based on prior knowledge and some information I’ve received from my planting science mentor.

Andrew Schnabel
said

Dear Team Carrot -

You have uploaded a ton of information and ideas in the last day.  I'll read through those later today when I'm free from my classes and see if I can't provide a few responses.

Glad to have you back from your break and thinking again about science -

Andrew Schnabel

Aidan
said

Link removed

    PlantingScience Staff
    said

    Hi team!

    We have removed the link to your Google document. Mentor, please do no request access to that link.

    In order to maintain student privacy, please DO NOT post last names, links to Google or Sharepoint documents, or social media handles.

    Please share files (Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, Power Point slides, images) in the "Files" tab to the left of this text area.

    Thank you for your cooperation!

Aidan
said

1. A claim we can make from our experiments is that there are advantages for a plant to have certain traits because it can help them blend in for use of camouflage and help make themselves more scary. Another advantage could it could help protect itself from certain climates. Another claim we can make is traits are not affected by environment because it is all genetics for how the plants look.
2. Some possible explanations for our results could be the genes that their parents had and what the plants look like. To answer our essential question the way the plant looks is totally based off the genes it has. Another possible explanation for our results are the environments our plants were in were consistently changing temperature but they didn't change.

3. Our plants did well with more soil, because the soil soaks up for water, causing the plant to become hydrated without becoming drowned. The soil can also help the plant become more rooted in it, helping the plant have its roots expand and have more breathing room (literally). The soil can also help the plants stay firmly inside the bottle.
4. We could test and see if the plants do better with fertilizer than soil. Maybe the fertilizer soaks up more soil, causing us to need less water to not kill the plant. If we change up the sand-particle, then we can test and see what works better for plants opposed to that which works worse.