Genetic Plant Growing Project

Project by group cmsoneilspring2021

Info

Explore I know that plants use sunlight and water to grow. We have discovered that plants use different materials and natural materials to grow.
Research Question Will the plant grow in a water bottle? Which is more defining of growth?..... Your environment or your genes?
Predictions I think that the plants will grow in a water bottle. I think that genes are more defining of of growth because they get genes from their parents. I think that compared to the control all the plants will grow because we only changed the amount of fertilizer we had, not the seeds. So, there will...
Experimental Design Our plan for this project is to determine what affects the plants in a positive or negative way. In our project we have a control that uses the normal amount of fertilizer, seeds(6), vermiculate(1/3), and soil. We then have an experiment that uses twice the amount of fertilizer, normal amount of...
Conclusion What claim can we make from our experiment? What are possible explanations for our results? How do the data we collected and our reasoning with scientific ideas support our claim? What future experiments could be done to expand on the results of this experiment?

Updates

Get to know your team’s scientist mentor, who will encourage and guide you through the scientific process of discovery. The more you share your ideas and research info, the more your mentor can help. You may also hear from a scientist mentor liaison who will be helping all the teams in your class.
PlantingScience Staff
has been updated by administrator
PlantingScience Staff
has been updated by administrator
PlantingScience Staff
uploaded 1vLmMbd2PSzCL1E1RPM4Ukg.jpg in project files
PlantingScience Staff
said
Hello everyone!

It looks like the problem is resolved and everything should be back to normal. Please feel free to resume posting, and do let us know if you experience any issues posting to your projects.
PlantingScience Staff
said

Hello everyone!

We are aware of some technical issues with the platform, leading to an issue with posting to project pages and issues with users' dashboards. We are working diligently with our developer to resolve them as quickly as possible. Please be patient and keep checking your projects so you can post your hellos, updates, reports, thank-yous, and goodbyes.

Lauren F Cole
said

Hi Lion Team,

Awesome job analyzing this project even though the results were somewhat confusing! Trevor emphasized that the Punnett square only shows a possible outcome, and this is right, random chance could have contributed to the abundance of non-purple plants in your experiment. Usually as you increase the number of your replicates, i.e. grow more plants, random chance will smooth out and you should see the expected ratio (which is why the school-wide data was probably closer to the expected ratio), but with a small number of plants, randomness will be a stronger factor.

However, there is another possible explanation for what you observed. Genes encoded in DNA are like instructions for organisms, but they still need to be read and carried out (expressed). It may be that you had the expected ratio of purple to non-purple plants, but the plants weren’t in the right environment to express the purple gene. Joe pointed out that he saw the leaves and stem change color with changing temperature. This is a great observation, and would be a good basis for a follow-up experiment to see if changing the temperature of your plants increases the amount of purple or light green plants observed.

Good luck with the rest of the school year!

Lauren

Trevor
said

Hi all,

Sorry for such a late message. I just wanted to say thank you to the mentors of this project. I had a good time learning and talking over the project with you guys. I thought this was a fun project, and I hope all you guys did too!I learned a lot about plants and what affects them the most. I hope you guys all have a great rest of your year. But on behave of the Lion team, Thank you all for your help!

Sincerely,

Lion Team 

PlantingScience Staff
said

Looks like you are in the final stages of your projects.

It’s great to see that teams from your school are wrapping up and posting conclusions. Enjoy the final stages of your project, and feel free to post any final comments or questions you have for your mentors.

You have until Tuesday, April 25, 2021, for final posts to be added, so please be sure to thank your fellow teammates soon!

Joe F
uploaded FFC30A8F-94EF-4AB0-99F1-A8F5B262ED2D.jpeg in project files
Joe F
said

4. Based off of… A. your group results, B. your class results, C. 9th grade CM Biology results, did we see this pattern of traits be expressed? Check the Mustard Seed Master Class Data sheet for this information and use it as evidence in your claims below.

Which level of the population (A, B, and/or C) showed the 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio? If your results varied from this ratio, please explain how that could occur with 3 claims. (15 points)

Level C showed the 9:3:3:1, but A and B didn’t. This might have occurred because maybe the plant didn’t have enough water, or the temperature of the classroom.

 

5. Please choose ONE of the continuous traits you measured and create a graph. You may choose to graph the using data exclusively from your group dataset, your class data, or the entire CM Biology growth data. Any data we collected from the Mustard experiment will be available to you in a downloadable excel file. Bonus points below will be applied to a missing or low grade from Q3.

       1.  Your Group Data (15points)

  1. Your Class Data (1.5x points=22.5points)
  2. The 9th grade Biology Mustard Data (2xpts=30points)

What trait did you graph? Please paste it below from the excel file.

I did my graph on my group’s plants height.

What is your x-axis? What is your y-axis?

My x-axis is the plant ID#. The y-axis is the height of the plants.

 


 

6. Please read Concept #1 and 2 other concepts from the list below. In claim-evidence-reasoning fashion, tell me why these concepts are true using the collected data from your mustard experiment, feedback from your mentors, and connections to genetics and evolution we have discussed together. (14 points)

Concepts:

1. An organism exists as an expression of its inherited genes interacting in an environmental context (Phenotype = Genotype X Environment). 

2. Inheritance of genes occurs via the life cycle of an organism through successful reproduction of offspring. 

3. Plants are living, reproducing organisms that live in and are influenced by the environment. 

4. Plants vary in their phenotypes (traits), and we can observe, measure and analyze this variation by studying populations of plants. 

5.  Science is an active process of inquiry, investigation, and communication.

This is true because I saw that the leaves and stems change color with different temperatures. 


 

1. The plants traits changed over time because they grew taller. They also grew more leaves and seed pods.

2. The possible explanation for our results could be that the bigger plants could have had more sunlight and water.

3. The data we collected supports my claim because we collected a lot of data that shows that the plants got taller and started to grow leaves and seed pods. The data shows the plants starting off slow and then gaining height quickly.

4. We could let them keep growing and see where they lead.

 

Joey S
said

2. For our plants we got mostly green stems even though that was recessive. I think that most of the seeds were recessive then, because there were only a few purple stems.

Trevor
said

4:Some future experiments that could be done to expand on the results is more control plants. If we have more control plants the better the comparison is. The more data the better. If we have more data to compare to each other the more we can decipher if the environments plays as big of a role as we think. If we add more plants then we give groups more members. By doing this we will have more data and it won't be as much work considering the amount of group members 

Trevor
said

1)One claim that we can make from our experiments is that the environment affects the plants more than genetics. The whole project, we worked on the question, "What affects a plant more, its environment or genes?"In this case our environment. After many tedious weeks of research, we did research on the growth and color of our plants. In our exam we looked at a Punnet square, that showed a higher chance of getting a 9:3:3:1 chance of purple stems and green leaves. But in our experiment we saw that this was not the case of the offspring. Most of the offspring was green leaves (recessive phenotype) and not the dominant phenotype purple leaves. This means that the parents alleles gave off most of their recessive alleles. But in the Punnet square it was predicted we would get more purple stem plants. Since the parents dominant traits(the more likely outcome) did not show up we know that there genetics were not as well presented in their offspring. Then we get to the environment part when we see that the plants are highly affected. This key question mainly comes down to what does more. They both may affect the outcome of the plant ,but the environments molds the plant into how it is behaviorally, and physically. After researching we see that the plants become brown and shriveled. This is because in our plants we tested to see if more fertilizer helped the plant. So we had three plants one with a normal amount of fertilizer, and then the other to either 2 times and then 3 times. We found out that the environment in the 2x and 3x plants looked a lot different than the normal amount fertilizer plant. In the experiment plants they were either brown and shriveled (maybe even dead) and then in the control it was mostly healthy. Based off this data in the long term of things the environment played a big role on how the plants looked after a while. Just because the parents give off their genes, docent mean that affects the way they live the rest of their life. Since the environment is long term, and the genes are just how you appear at first we can conclude that the enviorment plays a larger role in the outcome of the plants. 

    Trevor
    said

    3:The data supports our claim because the environment (more fertilizer) made our plants either die or shriveled and brown. Since our control was healthy with the normal amounts of environment and our experiments differed we can tell the environment made a huge impact. The feedback we got differs because the size and the leaves numbers differed from the control plant. The control plant is what we base everything off of. Since the data differed we can tell the environment played big role on how the environment played a bigger role on the plant.  We know that since the data differed from the control it supports our claim. 

Joey S
said

4. Based off of… A. your group results, B. your class results, C. 9th grade CM Biology results, did we actually see this pattern of traits be expressed? Check the Mustard Seed Master Class Data sheet for this information and use it as evidence in your claims below.

Which level of the population (A, B, and/or C) showed the 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio? If your results varied from this ratio, please explain how that could occur with 3 claims. (15 points)

The pattern of traits was not expressed. There were more green stems which were recessive. In the punnet square it shows there are more purple then green and that there was a higher chance of getting purple. But instead most of them were green.

 

 

 

Quantitative (or Continuous) Traits

 Most traits are determined by multiple genes (polygenic). In these cases, the traits tend to vary among individuals in a population along a continuum or range, since they are determined by the interaction of many genes (along with environmental influences).  Punnett squares are much more complex to set up (see image below), but the data gathered from an experiment may support its existence.

Polygenic Inheritance - Definition and Examples | Biology Dictionary
 These traits can be quantified, either as a measure (e.g., height, length, days), as a count (e.g., number of leaves), or along a scale (e.g., “hairiness” on a scale of 1-10). So, for instance, plants within a population may vary in height within a range at a particular time in their development. Quantitative traits that can be easily explored in the Mustard Brassica rapa include the following:

• Days for seedlings to emerge

• Height on given days after sowing

• Number of leaves on given days after sowing

• Length of leaves (be sure to create a protocol consistent throughout the class regarding which leaf on the plant will be measured, and how it will be measured)

• Days to flower

• Number of pods

 

Analyzing Data

5. Please choose ONE of the continuous traits you measured and create a graph. You may choose to graph the using data exclusively from your group dataset, your class data, or the entire CM Biology growth data. Any data we collected from the Mustard experiment will be available to you in a downloadable excel file. Bonus points below will be applied to a missing or low grade from Q3.

       1.  Your Group Data (15points)

  1. Your Class Data (1.5x points=22.5points)
  2. The 9th grade Biology Mustard Data (2xpts=30points)

What trait did you graph? Please paste it below from the excel file.

What is your x-axis? What is your y-axis?

 

 

Graphing data allows you to visualize the trends, and graphing data in different ways can be helpful. Below is a set of hypothetical data graphed with the x-axis representing the plant ID numbers, in ascending order. You can see there is a certain amount of variation in plant height on this day in the population.

Exemplars below:

 

Bonus: Looking back at your Mustard seed data is there a way to graph your data in a Normal Distribution curve like the image below? Instead of a bar graph, you use a format called a histogram. What must you make the x-axis and y-axis to display that curve?  Based on your results, is the phenotypic trait you chose to graph caused by one gene, two genes, three genes, or many genes? Use your graph to justify your answer. (10points will be applied to this Assessment only ) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jFCBbvSS4U

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Please read Concept #1 and 2 other concepts from the list below. In claim-evidence-reasoning fashion, tell me why these concepts are true using the collected data from your mustard experiment, feedback from your mentors, and connections to genetics and evolution we have discussed together. (14 points)

Concepts:

1. An organism exists as an expression of its inherited genes interacting in an environmental context (Phenotype = Genotype X Environment).

2. Inheritance of genes occurs via the life cycle of an organism through successful reproduction of offspring.

This is true because the offspring inherits the genes from the parents that reproduce. If it isn’t successful then the offspring can have missing chromosomes or developed other things.

  1. Plants are living, reproducing organisms that live in and are influenced by the environment.

This is true because plants also need oxygen in order to live. The plants also reproduce my making seed pods.

  1. Plants vary in their phenotypes (traits), and we can observe, measure and analyze this variation by studying populations of plants.

This is true because when we planted the seeds most of them had green stems when that was a recessive trait.

Trevor
said

Question 4

4. Based off of… A. your group results, B. your class results, C. 9th grade CM Biology results, did we actually see this pattern of traits be expressed? Check the Mustard Seed Master Class Data sheet for this information and use it as evidence in your claims below

 

Based off all results from our group, our classes group, and the whole grade of CM Biology these patterns of traits were not expressed. After looking at the data review sheet, I found out that there were a lot more non purple stem leaves actual purple. In the Punnet square above, we see the majority of the stems are purple. Compared to our data within our group, class, and CM biology, we found more non purpled stems. You are probably wondering how is this possible. When we think about it, it is more likely to happen than it is not. Think about a Punnet square, when we set it up it shows us the POSSIBILITES of what the offspring is going to look like. When we set up the Punnet square, we see that there are more purple stems than non-purple. But the small percentage of non-purple can still very well be the outcome in more than just one person’s results. Which is what happened in our experiment. After they developed and grew stems and leaves, we found that the Punnet square above’s data differed from our plants. A small number of our numbers were actually purple stems. This is because in the offspring we just happened to come out with non-purple stems more often than purple stems. Which means the Punnet square above is a prediction about the possible outcomes and the chance of getting non purple stems was lower. But this does not mean it is impossible

Which level of the population (A, B, and/or C) showed the 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio? If your results varied from this ratio, please explain how that could occur with 3 claims. (15 points)

My three claims for how the 9:3:3:1 ratio did not show because the Punnet square was only a prediction. Just because it tells us the more likely outcome doesn’t mean the smallest percentage chance will not show up. 

The dominant trait was not present in most plants, resulting in non-purple stems. Since the dominant trait was not present, we saw the recessive phenotype. Because this happened, we know that the parents two recessive alleles came down. The dominant traits were not present although the Punnet square predicted there was higher percentage of purple stems. But overall, the dominant trait was not present because the recessive allele was. 

The smaller percentage outcome just happened to overwhelm the result of the offspring. What this means is although the Punnet square predicted a higher percentage of purple stems, the recessive trait was received from the parent’s genes. Both parents sent down their recessive gene or the non-purple phenotype leading to the non-purple stems. The recessive gene was present and therefore the dominant (purple stem) was not. 

5. Please choose ONE of the continuous traits you measured and create a graph. You may choose to graph the using data exclusively from your group dataset, your class data, or the entire CM Biology growth data. Any data we collected from the Mustard experiment will be available to you in a downloadable excel file. Bonus points below will be applied to a missing or low grade from Q3.

       1.  Your Group Data (15points)

  1. Your Class Data (1.5x points=22.5points)

 

  1. The 9th grade Biology Mustard Data (2xpts=30points) 

What trait did you graph? Please paste it below from the excel file.

I did choice 2, the graph where it includes my whole classes number of leaves.

My x axis is the Plant number or ID number, it also includes a key to the teams within my class (A color code specifically). While my y axis is labeled with number of leaves. This shows you how many leaves each plant ID number has. 

 

6. Please read Concept #1 and 2 other concepts from the list below. In claim-evidence-reasoning fashion, tell me why these concepts are true using the collected data from your mustard experiment, feedback from your mentors, and connections to genetics and evolution we have discussed together. (14 points)

Concepts:

1. An organism exists as an expression of its inherited genes interacting in an environmental context (Phenotype = Genotype X Environment). 

2. Inheritance of genes occurs via the life cycle of an organism through successful reproduction of offspring. 

3. Plants are living, reproducing organisms that live in and are influenced by the environment.

4. Plants vary in their phenotypes (traits), and we can observe, measure and analyze this variation by studying populations of plants. 

5.  Science is an active process of inquiry, investigation, and communication.

CONCEPT#1

An organism exists as an expression of its inherited genes interacting in an environmental context (Phenotype = Genotype X Environment) because that organism gets its parents genes and is the result of the two mixed and is also affected by the environment making it for example healthy because it has sun (light bulb), water, and a correct amount of nutrients (in fertlizer)or unhealthy because it has too much sun, not enough water, or an unstable amount of fertilizer. The plants are all a result of the parents mixing their genes together. As we know if the parents had both purple stems and green leaves that would be what they phenotype of the offspring was, but there is also how the impact of the environment plays a role on how the plant maintains these phenotypes etc. In our plants we see that most have purple stems and green leaves. This leads us to the conclusion that the parents must have been heterozygous or homozygous dominant because purple and green leaves show off as dominant genes. We know that these are our phenotypes, but since we have experimented using different amounts of fertilizer we don’t know how well or long these phenotypes will be able to stay this way. So, again, restating that An organism exists as an expression of its inherited genes interacting in an environmental context (Phenotype = Genotype X Environment) is a true statement because we have seen in our plants that since we have added more fertilizer to plant experiment 2&3 the plant has not been growing seed pods and the leaves are starting to fall off or die. This is how the environment in the statement above is showing that the plant is affected by the environment. The phenotypes are not withheld because the environment Is unhealthy. If the environment is unhealthy then how is the plant supposed to withstand the phenotypes of its parents. Think about it and realize that it overall cant. Which is why both the environment and parent genotypes play a role on the phenotypes of the plants. 

Concept #3

 Plants are living, reproducing organisms that live in and are influenced by the environment because of the way it plays a role on the physical appearance.  The statement above is a true statement because we have seen how the fertilizer in this case the environment has played a role on the way the plant has grown. For example, in ex. 1 we see the plant at a normal stage and some of the plants have grown healthy while in ex.2 and 3 the plants have not been able to produce as well because the fertilizer(environment) has changed. These plants physically cannot help not being as well as ex 1 because it is the control or healthy plant on purpose. No plant with 2 to 3times the amount of fertilizer is supposed to grow like one with a normal amount. It’s not possible. The concept, “Plants are living, reproducing organisms that live in and are influenced by the environment because of the way it plays a role on the physical appearance” shows how the environment (fertilizer) plays a role on well the health of the plants are. And in this case ex. 1 is healthier than ex. 2 and 3 because the environment is healthier. 

Concept #5

Science is an active process of inquiry, investigation, and communication because the more and more we experiment and test the more and more we learn. What I’m trying to say is that by asking for inquiry we want to learn more and figure out why we do this for that. Why we study our plant in this case. In our project about planting science, we have learned to ask for information that will guide us the answer of what affects the plant more phenotype or environment? By asking for inquiry, we are investigating and by investigating we are communicating our research. We have our mentors for a reason that will help us down the right path of figuring out how the plant grows, and what affects it more. The more and more we ask, the more we are learning and the more investigating we are doing to answer this question. In our project we have asked our mentors question and they have asked us. For example, they asked our group “What do you think will have an impact and why?”. Our group did some research and we communicated back after doing some investigating “The fertilizer will have the biggest impact because it is the environment condition. We are trying to see if it will make the plant thrive or die.” Since our mentor asked for this information, we investigated and gave feedback. Concept 5 is just a couple steps in order to unlock the next. Someone asks for inquiry we investigate and give feedback. This concept “Science is an active process of inquiry, investigation, and communication” is a true concept that will help guide a group to accomplishing their goals of answering the question.

 

 

 

 

Trevor
uploaded MUSTARD ASSESMENT GRAPH.xlsx in project files
Joey S
said

Image preview

    Joey S
    said

    We have two big seed pods and a few really small ones, a lot of the plants went missing though.

     

Joe F
uploaded fullsizeoutput_1d5.jpeg and 2 more files in project files
Trevor
uploaded Plant Science Pic 1.jpeg in project files
Trevor
said

Good evening Ms. Jennings 

Some of the plants are looking good. In our control experiment we got our first seeds pods for the plant, but other than that the other plants have kind of faded away as just stems with shriveled up leaves. We have been keeping track on a spreadsheet and watching to see how tall the plants have gotten everyday we are in school. The visible differences we see are in experiment two the plants have faded to one side and are bunched together, while in experiment 3 most of the plants are dead, one disappeared and the others still have no leaves. All these compared to experiment 1 where as it has some dried out plants, and one that has seed pods. 

Dianne Jennings
said

Hello all,

  How are the plants looking? Is there any visible differences between your treatments?

 

Trevor
said

Good Morning Ms.Jennings

Sorry for such a late response to your previous comment. So, to respond to your question the fertilizer helps the plant grow by proving nutrients for the plant. The plant absorbs these nutrients from the soil, and uses it to grow(big and fast). It then uses it to provide food for the plant. Overall though the fertilizers is vital for the plant to grow. Which means the more fertilizer we add, the faster the plant grows, but since there is so much fertilizer, the plants growing process may be thrown off. 

Joe F
said

The plants are coming along very well. They have grown a lot in the past week-week and a half. There are only 2 or 3 plants that broke. The rest of the plants are growing and are healthy. My group members are giving them water when needed. They keep getting bigger and bigger everyday. I predict that the plants will flower more and more in the next week. 

Trevor
said

Dear Ms.Jennings

Im glad that gave more clarity on the description side of the project. Also for the project I predict that for each of the different levels of fertilizer that when the plant starts to grow faster and faster, the plant will grow quickly which is most likely why we are calling it a fast plant. But overall I think that the different layers of fertilizer are going to affect the plant because after going through one they have more layers to go through, so the way they grow will be determined on how much fertilizer layers there are meaning that the plants will more than likely grow too fast to adjust.  

    Dianne Jennings
    said

    Trevor,

      Arabidopsis is called a fast plant because of the time it take for it to grow from seed to a flowering seed producing plant (about 40 days). It is, as you say, because it grows so fast. Keeping this in mind, how does the fertilizer help the plant to grow?

Trevor
said

Good Morning Ms, Jennings 

So for this project we are using a "fast plant" or to be a little more specific a Brasscia Rapa . We do have one control that we are using for this project and two experiments. The control consists of one osmocote for every one seed we have which is 6. Then there is 1/3 cup of vermiculate, 1/3 cup of fertilizer and soil. While the experiments consist of everything in the control, but the osmocote is twice the amount in experiment 1 with means we use two osmocote for every seed(12) and for experiment 3 we use 3x the amount of osmocote which is 3 for every seed (18).Let me know if that clears things up or if you have any other question

Sincerely,

Trevor 

    Dianne Jennings
    said

    Trevor,

      That is much clearer. What do you predict will happen with each of the different levels of fertilizer and why?

Dianne Jennings
said

I am having a hard time visualizing the experimental set up. Can you describe it or take some pictures to help me understand what you will be doing?

    Dianne Jennings
    said

    Trevor,

      Is there a control for this experiment or are you using a baseline measurement as a control? This part is unclear.

Joey S
said

The plants are starting to get very tall and starting to grow leaves. I noticed that there is more green stems then purple stems. 

    Trevor
    said

    Some of the stems are more sturdy than other at least one of them snapped, but our progress is moving along pretty smoothly. We haven't dropped our plants like some other groups, and we are being careful getting the correct data in.

    Dianne Jennings
    said

    What type of plant are you using?

Trevor
changed the project settings
Trevor
updated the project info
Joe F
changed the project settings
Joe F
updated the project info
Trevor
changed the project settings
Trevor
updated the project info
Trevor
changed the project settings
Trevor
updated the project info
Joe F
updated the project info
Joe F
changed the project settings
Joe F
changed the project settings
Joe F
updated the project info
Lauren F Cole
joined the project
Joe F
said

I cant wait to see what has more impact on the plants.

    Dianne Jennings
    said

    Joe,

     What do you think will have an impact and why?

    D

Dianne Jennings
said

Hello,

   Its nice to "meet" you all. I am looking forward to working with you on your project.

Dianne

Dianne Jennings
joined the project
Trevor
said

Hi Dianne and Lauren, my name is Trevor. I'm also a freshman at Catholic Memorial High school. I enjoy biology, but even more working in group projects. I can't wait to get started with this project and work with you guys. 

Joey S
said

My name is Joey and I'm in ninth grade at CM.

Joey S
joined the project
Trevor
joined the project
Joe F
said

Hi Lauren and Dianne my name is Joe and i am a freshman at Catholic Memorial. I am in Mr. Oneil's freshman biology class. I cant wait to get started on the project.  

 

Lauren F Cole
said

Hi Team, 

Welcome to PlantingScience! Dianne will be your scientist mentor for this session.

I am the liaison, and my role is to facilitate conversation between students and their mentor. For example, I might pop in and add to the conversation if your mentor is unavailable for a period of time.

A little about me - I am a PhD student at Northeastern University, just down the street from you guys in Boston. I study a medicinal plant called Catharanthus roseus, which is the only plant in the world that produces an important chemotherapy medicine called vincristine. Feel free to ask me any questions about Northeastern, medicinal plants, PlantingScience, or anything else you can think of.

Please introduce yourselves and have fun with the experiment!

Lauren

Lauren F Cole
joined the project