camsdavispgstfall2020 project 15 stink stankers

Project by group camsdavispgstfall2020

Explore To state the basics, plants are multicellular organisms that common on the surface of the earth. They utilize photosynthesis, using sunlight to synthesize food through water and carbon dioxide. They create oxygen as a byproduct of this process. Plants can be found on every continent and hold great biological diversity. Plants hold many uses to humanity and can be used for nutrients, materials, medicine, and many other purposes. Plants are able to contract disease, which are defined as any harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism, associated with certain signs and symptoms that differ from a physical injury. These are caused by a pathogen, which is a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause a disease. These disease require three variables to exist. They need a proper host, agent, and environment to work. An example of a disease on a plant would be potato rot. When a potato gets damaged and is then exposed to water, bacteria will then infect the potato. If they stay long enough, the bacteria then continues to colonize. The difference between infection and colonization is that disease-causing organisms causes damage to a host's tissues in an infection, while bacteria is only present on the host's surface without causing disease in colonization. Plant Disease: Pathogens and Cycles. (2019, January 28). Retrieved November 13, 2020, from https://cropwatch.unl.edu/soybean-management/plant-disease Soft rot diseases of potatoes. (n.d.). Retrieved November 13, 2020, from https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/potatoes/soft-rot-diseases-potatoes M. Adeolu, A., Agrios, G., NA. Ashmawy, M., D. Chapman, B., R. Czajkowski, G., R. Czajkowski, W., . . . M. Waleron, K. (1970, January 01). Etiology of potato soft rot and blackleg diseases complex in Egypt. Retrieved November 13, 2020, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41348-020-00354-6 Williams, S. D., & Boehm, M. J. (n.d.). Plants Get Sick Too! Ohio. https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/plpath-gen-1
Research Question How does the way a tissue is damaged affect how the inoculum reacts to the potato? A big difference that was noted was the change in appearance after poking it with a toothpick. Contrary to its brown appearance before being infected, parts of the potato turned darker. We already know that bacteria causes damage to a host's tissue as a side effect from a disease. Depending on the type of damage of the tissue, the color of it can change. Another notable change was the stench of the potato, how over time the stench got worse. This was as expected, but why does t happen is the question when it comes to the smell. Lastly, a change in the potato is durability of the potato. The potato isn't as strong as it used to be. What about the tissue causes this? We also seek to know if these 3 properties are linked to the type of damage done to the potato.
Predictions One prediction is that the potato that has been inoculated will begin to rot . Considering that there is a lot of bacteria in the inoculant, the potato will probably start to grow mold a lot quicker than a potato without inoculant. It is likely to start smelling very badly just like the original potato and will probably get mushy.
Experimental Design Hypothesis - An invasion of inoculum changes the color, odor, and durability of a potato because it causes changes in a tissue’s structure. The more inoculum used, the more damaged tissue gets. Materials - 6 potatoes - 4 plastic bags - 4.711 cups water - 2 paper towels - 2 container - 2 toothpicks - 0.5 cups bleach Variables - Independent variable - damage (type - Dependent variables - qualities of potato - Control - normal potato Procedure 1 - Cut 3 potatos in half. Place each potato in a plastic bag and add 50ml of water. 2 - Close each plastic bag and put each into separate plastic bags. Close them. 3 - Leave the plastic bags alone for 3 days 4 - After 3 days, grab 3 new potatos and thoroughly wash them clean. 5 - Simulate Truck Damage by Denting them. 6 - Make a 10% bleach solution by adding 4.5 cups of water and 0.5 cups of bleach into a container for each of the 6 new potatoes. 7 - Agitate each solution by swirling it around with a potato. Leave the potato in the solution for 30 minutes. 8 - After 30 minutes, grab the plastic bags with the potatos and pour the water into a new container. 9 - Wrap each potato in a damp paper towel and let them rest in separate plastic bags for 5 days. Redo the previous step every day. Write down any observations every day. for the Length of Experiment.
Conclusion To Conclude this Experiment, We have determined that a Potato’s Main Line of Defence is the skin. The potato with slits in its skin and that had its skin compromised was thoroughly infected and led to similar results as from our preliminary trials, which were to be expected. The Dented Potatoes, however, are best described by the conductor of the experiment as, “...a little disappointing if you ask me.”. They were so unaffected that “I can probably still use the bruised potatoes [to be honest].” The conclusions that can be drawn from this is that the skin is the main part of the potato that protects from disease due to the fact that the potatoes with the compromised skin resulted in similar results as potatoes sliced in half, whilst potatoes that were dented, yet retained an uncompromised skin, were unaffected.
Investigation Theme Copy PGST
Grade Level High School Students (Grades 9,10,11,12)
School Name California Academy of Mathematics and Science
Session Fall 2020