camsdavispgstfall2020 project 14

Project by group camsdavispgstfall2020

Explore Plants are grown from seeds Plant cells have a structure of cellulose creating the cell wall Plants photosynthesize Meiosis: is a process where a single cell divides twice to produce four cells containing half the original amount of genetic information Mitosis:a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth. Eukaryotes Evolutionary Fitness: The plants capability to successfully reproduce Genetic drift and Genetic Flow: potato pigmentation, 4,000 different varieties, size, nutritional value, etc... We have discovered in class that plants are able to contract diseases and airborne pathogens. As well as the fact they contain Plants contain alleles (X and Y Chromosomes) Gregor Mendel: Laws of inheritance, no Blending inheritance and Discrete units: genes, different versions: allele, dominant and recessive Potatoes are root vegetables Potatoes can experience latent infections (bacteria that cause soft rot can remain on plants without any obvious symptoms). Pathogens spread in potatoes through wounds or damages to the potato. Bacteria invades through the tuber of the potato and causes rot. Increased temperature causes stress on the tuber of the potatoes causing them their immune system to weaken allowing higher chance of infection. Higher temperature = photorespiration Potatoes are primarily made of starch (carbohydrates). Tubers are the storage organs of the potato that is produced during one growing season. Potatoes can be used as thickening agents Tuber cells protect the potato from infections Source 1: Article title: Soft rot diseases of potatoes | Agriculture and Food Website title: Agric.wa.gov.au URL: https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/potatoes/soft-rot-diseases-potatoes Source 2: Website title: Extensionpublications.unl.edu URL: https://extensionpublications.unl.edu/assets/pdf/g2203.pdf Source 3: Website title: Plantpathology.ca.uky.edu URL: https://plantpathology.ca.uky.edu/files/ppfs-vg-18.pdf Source 4: Article title: Bacterial Soft Rot and Blackleg / Potato / Agriculture: Pest Management Guidelines / UC Statewide IPM Program (UC IPM) Website title: Www2.ipm.ucanr.edu URL: https://www2.ipm.ucanr.edu/agriculture/potato/Bacterial-Soft-Rot-and-Blackleg/ Source 5: Article title: Potato, Identifying Diseases Website title: Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment URL: https://ag.umass.edu/vegetable/fact-sheets/potato-identifying-diseases
Research Question 1.Does the concentration of the bleach solution used before inoculation affect the rate of soft rot in potatoes?
Predictions The higher the concentration the bleach solution is, the faster the soft rot of the potato will take place. A higher concentration of bleach solution will cause the tuber cells of the potato to weaken creating conditions that promote soft.
Experimental Design Hypothesis - The higher the concentration the bleach solution is, the faster the soft rot of the potato will take place. A higher concentration of bleach solution will cause the tuber cells of the potato to weaken creating conditions that promote soft rot. Purpose: To see the effect that varying concentrations of bleach have on the rate of soft rot. Procedure: Preparation Cut a potato in half and place in a plastic bag. Add 50 ml of water into the bag. Push air out of the plastic bag and seal. Place another plastic bag over the bag and leave the potato in the bag for at least 7 days. Inoculating the Potato: The day before inoculating the potato take another potato and wash with water. Place the potato in a 10% bleach solution for 30 minutes. Agitate the potato for 30 minutes and rinse with tap water. Dry for at least 30 minutes. Pour the inoculum in the plastic bag from the potato into a container. Take a toothpick, dip it into the inoculum and stab the potato gently (half inch). Opposing sides of the potato in a total of 4 different times. Wrap potato with a damp paper towel and place in a different ziplock bag. Leave for 7 days and seal inoculum. Repeat Preparation and Inoculating the Potato multiple times with varying concentrations of bleach. Creating different percent concentrations of bleach solution: If unable to buy varying concentrations of bleach solution, create varying concentrations of bleach by diluting the bleach solution with cold/tepid water. Use the c1v1=c2v2 formula to create desired bleach concentrations. Create varying concentrations of 5%, 10%, 2.5%. For example, dilute the 10% bleach solution to 5% by adding 60 ml of bleach and 60 ml cup of water. Materials: -plastic bags -stopwatch -potatoes -bleach solution (varying concentrations) -50 ml of water -toothpick -container with lid(that closes)
Investigation Theme Copy PGST
Grade Level High School Students (Grades 9,10,11,12)
School Name California Academy of Mathematics and Science
Session Fall 2020