Planting Scince 16

Project by group camsdavisafwfall2020

Explore Summary of Experiment In this experiment, we were tasked with adding kool aid to 2 different kinds of soil, dirt and sand, and measuring the leachate. This was so we could measure the amount of nutrients being absorbed by the dirt. Overall, the dirt absorbed the most nutrients as it produced the least amount of leachate and the sand absorbed less as it had more leachate. This is because sand is finer than dirt so the nutrients were able to travel more freely throughout it while the dirt is coarser so it was harder for the nutrients to travel all the way through. Below are the APA citations and the background research we have gathered on agronomy. Source 1: Maat, H. (2011, January 13). The history and future of agricultural experiments. Retrieved October 07, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1573521410000461 Source 1 Summary: For a long duration of time, the gap between scientific experiments and experimental activities have been quite larger than expected. Observing Paul Richards arguments, advisors have sought to rediscover agronomic roots and different ways to collectively design creative experiments which will allow for the audience to be both farmers and scientists. "Although the importance of farmer management of rice varieties is known for many years to both local and international rice breeders, there is no mechanism in place that enables the integration of field information, on-farm experimentation and on-station and laboratory experiments by researchers. More than coincidence and the hope for a good guess, recalling the concerns expressed by Timmer in the 1940s, the example shows that the current research system is predominantly focused on scientific solutions, excluding available information obtained from field studies.” <- Directly from the text Source 2: Hunt, N. D., Hill, J. D., & Liebman, M. (2019). Cropping System Diversity Effects on Nutrient Discharge, Soil Erosion, and Agronomic Performance. Environmental Science & Technology, 53(3), 1344-1352. doi:10.1021/acs.est.8b02193 Source 2 summary :Rotation system and herbicide regime were significant drivers of the crop yield, weed suppression, and net returns to land and management. Rotation was a significant and positive driver of corn and soybean yields, with significant increases observed as at least one crop phase was added to the 2-year rotation. Increasing rotation diversity increased corn yields in the present experiment, perhaps due to enhanced nitrogen fertility from legumes and fertility-related and nonfertility-related stimulatory effects of manure. The results of this study are consistent with those of other studies, which have shown that alternative cropping systems that include inter- or double-cropping or use of green manure can improve crop performance due to increases in soil fertility, better soil structure, and lowering of crop diseases and pests rates compared to shorter rotations and monocultures. Source 3: Singh, B., & Schulze, D. G. (n.d.). Soil Minerals and Plant Nutrition. Retrieved October 05, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/soil-minerals-and-plant-nutrition-127881474/ Source 3 Summary: This passage asks the question of “How do chemical reactions involving soil minerals play a crucial role in controlling the availability of essential plant nutrients?” Plants need 17 elements to complete their life cycle, and those nutrients are gained through various different processes over time. Soil is influenced by its origins, weathering, and age. Primary minerals gain minerals from high-temperature reactions, pressure, and weathering. Secondary minerals control the nutrients as a source, precipitating and absorbing elements to moderate the plants’ intake. Secondary minerals act as reservoirs strong enough to prevent leaching of the nutrients but weak enough to allow plants to acquire them. Minerals from low-temperature reactions. Secondary nutrients Ca and Mg are taken by plants as Ca2+ and Mg2+ and S is taken as SO42-. Micronutrients Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Ni are taken up by plants in their cationic forms, and B, Mo, and Cl are taken in their anionic forms.
Research Question Final Research Question Is there a limit to how much Potassium soil can absorb and at what point does the Potassium become detrimental to the growth of radishes? Possible Research Questions: 1. Is there a limit to how much nutrients (potassium, nitrate, or phosphorus) the soil can absorb? At what point is the nutrient concentration good for the radish to grow? 2. How does soil vary across the area?
Predictions 1. There is a limit. The one with the most amount of nutrients will grow the best plant. 2. In different areas the soil will allow different rates of plant growth
Experimental Design We were provided with a potassium testing kits and potassium tablets we plan to have 5 different pots, one with 2 potassium tablets, another with only one tablet, the following with half, and the final experimental pot with a quarter. The control pot will have store bought soil with no potassium added. 2 radish seeds will be added to every pot at a depth of about 2cm to ensure that at least one grows and plant growth will be measured according to plant height (cm) over time(days). The growth will be measured every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday following the start of the experiment and watered with 50mL of water every Monday and Friday, with the soil being tested on Wednesdays. To test the amount of potassium absorbed by the soil we are soil to replicate the experiment we conducted earlier with the kool aid, however the instead of kool aid flavoring added to the water, potassium tablets will be added at concentrations according to the tablet associations provided above. We will also measure the concentration or relative concentration of the potassium in the water collected after it has traveled through the soil. The concentrations will be determined in molarity with the volume of the water being set at 100mL for all trials. The soil with no potassium added will simply have the water run through it to ensure consistency.